Image: S. Ossokine, A. Buonanno, T. Dietrich, Max Planck / Institute for Gravitational Physics / R. Haas / NCSA
A group of scientists from the LIGO collaboration and Virgo have not found signs of “leaking” of gravitational waves because of a hypothetical extra dimensions. This allows you to reject a number of theories that include gravity in the Standard model (describing the properties of all known particles and three of the four fundamental interactions), that is, are candidates for a theory of everything. The results of their work published in the repository of the Arxiv preprints, confirm the General theory of relativity.
17 Aug 2017 detectors of gravitational Observatory LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) and Virgo for the first time recorded signal GW170817 from the merger of two neutron stars. Aroused, gravitational waves and celonova, accompanied by short gamma-ray burst, the brightest explosions in the optical and infrared range and a long afterglow in x-ray and radiologic. The observations allowed to establish strict limits on the difference between the speed of light and speed of gravitational waves, Lorentz invariance and the effect of the Shapiro — delay of electromagnetic signals in time in the gravitational field.
In General relativity the speed of gravitational waves is the speed of light, however more exotic models, claiming to be a theory of everything, I suppose that depending on the remoteness of the source on propagation of gravitational waves can influence the specific effects. For example, waves may be subject to dispersion because of the violation of Lorentz invariance or impaired due to the presence of extra dimensions. The gravitational “leakage” (eng. gravitational linkage) is due to “leakage” of gravitons in higher dimensional space suggested in the framework of various theories of quantum gravity.
Since the gravitational “leakage” depends on the number of extra dimensions, the change in the amplitude of gravitational waves it is possible to determine the approximate number of these measurements. If the latter exist, the distance from the source defined by the gravitational waves, must not exceed the distance defined by the electromagnetic radiation. According to many exotic models, light and matter can move only in four dimensions. The researchers came to the conclusion that currently available data are consistent with a model of four-dimensional Universe.
Scientists emphasize that some models suggesting the existence of extra dimensions and “gravitational leakage, which suddenly manifests itself at large distances”, can’t be fully rejected. However, future observations with gravitational detectors will test them.
Video, photo All from Russia.