Photo: Hisayoshi Nozaki and Yoko Araraki
Scientists of the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg have deciphered the genome of one of the simplest multicellular life forms — green algae Tetrabaena socialis consisting of four cells. This allowed us to determine the genetic mechanisms that contributed to the emergence of mnogoletnei. Article biologists published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution, briefly about the study described in the press release at EurekAlert!.
Scientists compared the genome of the algae with the DNA of related species, which consists of only one cell. Decoding the entire DNA of the algae allowed the identification of differences in the way proteasomal ubiquitin. Proteasome — an enzyme that breaks down unneeded or defective proteins are marked with a small ubiquitin protein to individual amino acids. Proteasome also regulates the levels of compounds critical for cell division. According to researchers, Tetrabaena socialis uses the path of ubiquitin in order to limit the number of cells to four.
According to biologists, in the history of life on Earth mnogoletnei evolved independently at least 25 times. Different lines of organisms may be common mechanisms responsible for the emergence of complexity, however, genes in each case will be unique. At Tetrabaena socialis they contribute double cell division, and related multicellular algae — division up to 12 times.
Video, photo All from Russia.