An international group of scientists from France and Brazil have discovered a new species of giant mimivirus, which possess a complex genetic apparatus, not previously encountered none of the viruses. Called tranverse, they are closer to eukaryotic organisms, including humans, than other similar infectious agents. Article researchers published in the journal Nature Communications.
It was thought that viruses differ from other obligate (living in the host organism) parasite that used for propagation mechanisms that belong to the infected cell. Most of them has almost no genes encoding elements of the apparatus of protein synthesis, such as ribosomes, transfer RNA (tRNA), enzymes and protein factors that ensure the continuity of the process of translation. However, in 1992, was discovered mimivirus, which differed from other viruses giant size, large genome and the presence of hundreds of genes encoding tRNA and other components of the apparatus of the broadcast.
In the new work, scientists describe two new strains of tupancireta having a long cylindrical capsid tails. They were isolated from the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Vermamoeba vermiformis, living in lakes with high alkalinity and in the deep sea. Giant virus got its name in honor of the God Stupid, worshipped by the Guarani Indians in South America.
Their genome is formed by a double-stranded DNA, coding for about 1276-1425 proteins. They have the largest viruses machine translation, including 70 tRNA, 20 aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase (aaRS), 11 factors for all stages of translation and the factors responsible for the maturation of mRNA and tRNA. In this genetic context, which is characteristic for eukaryotic and bacterial organisms, do not exist only ribosomal genes. According to the riches of genes associated with the stream, Tupamaros exceed the bacterium Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, the archaea Nanoarchaeum equitans and eukaryotes Encephalitozoon cuniculi.
Tupamaros can also infect different organisms, and even the mere presence of non-breeding foraging areas of virus particles in the cell caused its destruction. This previously unknown phenomenon is reflected in the degradation of the ribosomal apparatus of the host. Likely reason for this is the attempt of the virus to switch mechanisms of the cell to manufacture its own proteins.
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