Archaeologists from China and the UK came to the conclusion that to the state of Yin, which is considered the first ancient state formation, there was an ancient advanced civilization. Its representatives were able to build complex engineering structures that protect major cities from floods. In an article published in the journal Antiquity, the authors conducted a review of recent archaeological discoveries related to a newly discovered culture Liangzhu.
The state of Yin (also known as the Shan state) appeared around 1600 BC. However, in 1936, archaeologists discovered ancient settlement, named Liangzhu, which was located in the Yangtze river Delta, 160 kilometers West of Shanghai, in Zhejiang province. In 1986 they were excavated burials, in which scientists found the grave, where were buried members of the nobility. This revealed a clear distinction between classes. The results of Dating showed that the age of the graves reached 4800-5300 years.
Later archeologists discovered a complex system of platforms and fortifications, designed to protect the settlement from floods. The width of the city wall, according to the estimates, was not less than 20 metres in width, and the height in some places reached four meters. Thus, the settlement of Liangzhu was one of the largest cities during the late Neolithic. Here also there was a water supply system that was used for irrigation of agricultural land. The ancient Chinese created a system of dams and artificial water reservoirs with the total volume of which reached 50 million cubic meters.
Also, the liangzhu culture was characterized by the creation of jade and jadeite jewelry, including jewelry, axes, disks, cylinders bi and HQ. It is believed that these artifacts served as the distinctive features of nobility, as they were only found within certain graves.
Thus, according to the researchers, there are three lines of evidence confirming that the liangzhu culture was a complex of state education, despite the lack of writing. These include the size of the city, the presence of engineering structures and the creation of complex artifacts.
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