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Scientists at Cambridge University (UK) created the coliform bacteria with a fully synthetic genome, perekodirovat certain parts. This publication reports Science Alert.
The researchers constructed a genome consisting of four million bases. At the same time they reduced the number of used codons (units of genetic code or triplets) that correspond to amino acids or to indicate where the end of the protein encoding portion of a gene. Scientists have replaced certain codons to their counterparts, the result has been to reduce the number of codons from 64 to 61. There were produced 18 214 substitutions.
The experts noted three of the target triplet, two of them encode the amino acid serine, and the other was one of the stop codons, that is, stopped the synthesis of protein chain. Each of them was replaced by another of the remaining codons with the same function. Edited a gene called Syn61, proved to be viable, although its speakers were to multiply 1.6 times slower.
In the normal genetic code is redundant, since 61 codons, each composed of three nucleotides (for example, ATG), is used to encode only 20 amino acids and three are stop codons. Different codons that encode the same amino acid are called synonymous. Most often, however, synonymous codons are not equivalent, and replace the one on the other can be harmful.
Video, photo All from Russia.