Scientists at the Australian national University first observed the effect of the depletion of the condensate Bose-Einstein — the special aggregate state of matter in which quantum effects manifest themselves at the macro level. Was recorded a mysterious Ghost particles that are ejected from the condensate and whose behavior cannot be explained within the framework of modern concepts. About it reported in a press release on Phys.org.
For observation of this elusive particle-the”fugitives”, the researchers created a Bose condensate consisting of polaritons — quasiparticles arising from the interaction of photons with quanta of excitation of the medium (phonons, excitons, plasmons, and others). The condensate emitted light, which was blocked with the edge of the blade, just as the Moon obscures the Sun during a solar Eclipse. This allowed the scientists to record previously invisible particle that was “expelled” out of the condensate due to quantum fluctuations.
Properties of exciton-polariton condensates, which is a non-equilibrium quantum fluid, can range from more physical to “light-like”. In the first case they behave as described by the theory for condensates in conditions of thermal equilibrium. However, the behavior of “light-like” condensates are not discharged in any of the modern theories.
Condensate Bose-Einstein represents the phase state of matter formed by bosons — particles that can exist in the same quantum state (roughly speaking, they are fundamentally impossible to distinguish one from another even to the position in space). This distinguishes bosons from fermions (e.g. electrons), are subject to the Pauli exclusion principle. Bose condensates can behave as liquids, the quantum properties of which (e.g., superfluidity) visible to the naked eye.
Video, photo All from Russia.