Photo: Tom Misteli, Ph.D., and Karen Meaburn, Ph. D. at the NIH IRP
Scientists at the silent spring Institute in the US have identified the main mechanisms inside the cells, the violation of which leads to breast cancer — one of the most common and difficult to treat forms of cancer. It turned out that traditional models of carcinogenesis do not take into account the complexity of this process, which complicates an adequate treatment of the disease. The authors, who published in the journal Archives of Toxicology.
The researchers reviewed 467 scientific papers that assessed the impact of ionizing radiation on cells in the breast, and created a map of successive changes in cells that can lead to cancer. Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for the development of breast tumors, and its impact is well understood, a considerable number of studies due to the effects of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and women who in adolescence were exposed to medical irradiation.
In traditional models, ionizing radiation has an effect only on the DNA of breast cells. However, it appeared that this factor also causes the formation of active forms of oxygen and nitrogen, which destroy cells that trigger inflammation, alter DNA and affect other biological processes. Another member of the carcinogenesis are the reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone, stimulating the proliferation (reproduction) of cells in tissues of the breast.
A new model of scientists, taking into account the interaction of these factors allows to develop new tests, which regulators can use when checking on the safety of various chemicals. Compounds that break way whose failures are associated with cancer, are considered potential carcinogens.
Video, photo All from Russia.